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Cardiovascular System AssmtPhysical Examination & Health Assessment

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____ is a noninvasive measure of heart structure and heart wall motion. Demonstrates overall cardiac performance.
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Echocardiography
Abnormal impulses origination above the ventricles are _____ dysrhythmias.
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Supraventricular. **have an abnormal P wave**
______ is a common dysrhythmia in older adults. Irregularly Irregular
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Atrial Fibrillation
Tachydysrhythmias and bradydysrhythmias ____ cardiac output and blood pressure.
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lower. (Tachycardia causes a decrease in diastolic filling time; bradycardia causes a decrease in heart rate.
What do the following represent: P wave; PR Interval; QRS complex; QT Interval?
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P wave= electrical conduction through atria, PR interval= AV to bundle of His to Purkinje, QRS Complex= impulse through ventricles, QT interval= ventricular depolarization and repolarization
What is the path of conduction through the heart?
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SA node (pacemaker; 60-100 bpm); AV node (40-60 bpm); Bundle of His (20-40 bpm); Purkinje (20-40 bpm)
How does the body adapt to hypovolemia?
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increase heart rate, peripheral vasoconstriction to increase the volume of blood returned to the heart thereby increasing cardiac output
_____ radionuclide angiography. Used to evaluate cardiac structure, myocardial perfusion and contractility.
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Scintigraphy
What are signs and symptoms of left-side heart failure?
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Fatigue, breathlessness (often at rest), dizziness, confusion, crackles, hypoxia, cough, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
What disease lead to myocardial pump failure?
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Coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular disorders, pulmonary disease
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What could decrease a QT interval?
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Digitalis therapy, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia
What are signs and symptoms of angina pectoris?
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Aching, sharp tingling or burning; pressure; left-sided chest pain that can radiate to jaw, neck, and back **relieved with rest and/or nitroglycerin**
What are signs and symptoms of right-sided heart failure?
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Weight gain, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, dependent peripheral edema
What is a normal CK for both males and females?
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Males: 55-170 units/L; females: 30-135 units/L
_____ is a sudden rapid onset of tachycardia origination above the AV node. Can be caused by excitement, fatigue, caffeine, smoking, etc?
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Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia
____ and ____ are life threatening rhythms that require immediate interventions.
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Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation
What could increase a QT interval?
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Hypocalcemia, drugs (disopyramide/amiodarone)
This test is NOT a valuable tool for evaluation of cardiac response in women due to increase in false positives.
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ECG exercise stress test
What are common MI symptoms in women?
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Angina, fatigue, indigestion, vasospasm, shortness of air, back/jaw pain
What are signs and symptoms of MI?
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Crushing, squeezing, or stabbing chest pain (left side, can be felt in the back, left arm, neck, jaws, teeth, epigastric area, back) **occurs at rest and is not relieved easily**
MI results from a sudden ____ (increase or decrease) in coronary blood flow or an ____ (increase or decrease) in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion.
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Decrease (in blood flow), increase (in O2 demand)
  
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