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ImmobilityFundamentals of Nursing

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The ____ joint is a freely movable joint in which contiguous bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and are connected by ligaments.
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Synovial (true joint)
____ are white, shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting bones and cartilages. Sometimes they have a protective function.
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Ligaments
____ are white, glistening fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. They are strong, flexible and inelastic.
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Tendons
____ is nonvascular, supporting connective tissue located chiefly in the joints and thorax, trachea, larynx, nose and ear.
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Cartilage
Permanent cartilage is unossified except?
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In old age or with disease conditions like osteoarthritis.
In ____ tension, increased muscle contraction causes muscle shortening resulting in movement (Ex: Using an overhead trapeze to pull up in bed).
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Concentric
____ tension helps control speed and direction of movement (Ex: Slowly lowering).
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Eccentric (lengthening muscle)
Voluntary muscle movement is a combo of ____ and ____ contractions.
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Isotonic and isometric
____ contraction causes an increase in muscle tension or muscle work but no shortening or active movement of the muscle.
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Isometric (Ex: tightening les muscle)
Concentric and eccentric muscle actions are required for movement and are referred to as?
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dynamic or isotonic
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Muscles of the lower extremities, trunk, neck, and back are concerned primarily with ____.
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posture
____ is the normal state of balanced muscle tension.
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Muscle tone
The ____ is the major voluntary motor area and is in the ____.
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precentral gyrus, cerebral cortex
Right side movement= ____ motor strip. Left side movement= ____ motor strip.
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Right=Left, Left=Right
Clients with muscular dystrophy experience progressive, _____ weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle groups.
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Symmetric
What are the cluster of symptoms referred to as the hazards of immobility?
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Loss of muscle strength at a rate of 3% a day, cardiovascular, skeletal, and organ changes, and disuse atrophy (decrease in size and function of cells)
What are the four general objectives of bed rest?
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Decrease activity and oxygen needs, decrease pain, allowing ill or debilitated clients to rest, and allowing exhausted clients rest.
How is metabolism impacted by immobility?
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Decreased GI function, decreased calcium absorption, decreased metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins leading to fluid, electrolyte and Calcium imbalances
What type of support surface is used for treatment and prevention of pulmonary complication associated with immobility?
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Lateral rotation (passive motion)
How is metabolism impacted by and immobilized client that has active wound healing?
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Increased BMR because of increased cellular oxygen requirements.
A deficiency in ____ leads to a negative nitrogen balance in immobile patients.
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Proteins and calories (body excretes more nitrogen than proteins ingested).
  
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