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GI NutritionFundamentals of Nursing

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What things can a nurse do to decrease or eliminate diarrhea caused by enteral feedings?
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Canned formula at room temperature, follow strict sanitation principles, increase rate slowly, if hypertonic: give initial feeding 1/2 strength and work up from there.
____ is the use of specific nutritional therapies to treat illness, injury or medical condition.
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Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT)
When ____ % of a client's needs are being met by reliable dietary intake, PN is usually discontinued.
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75%
A malnourished client's receiving TPN. She begins experiencing cardiac dysrhythmias, CHF, respiratory distress, convulsions, and coma. This is?
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Refeeding Syndrome
Clients on TPN need exogenous vitamin ____.
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K
How is (TPN) catheter sepsis prevented?
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Change TPN tubing every 24 hours, don't hang lipids over 12 hours, use sterile masks and gloves during changes, clean injection port each time it is used, and use an in-line 0.22?m filter
A client on TPN has chills, fever, and glucose tolerance. You suspect they have?
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catheter sepsis
How can an air embolus be prevented during insertion of a TPN catheter?
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Have them lay on left lateral decubitus position and perform Valsalva maneuver
A client on PN has diaphoresis, shakiness, confusion, and decreased LOC. They most likely have?
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Hypoglycemia. Taper TPN to 10% of infusion rate 1-2 hours before stopping, administer 50% dextrose or glucagon
What are possible complications of PN therapy?
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Metabolic alterations, pneumothorax (right after placement), air embolus from insertion or changing tubing, catheter sepsis
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Continuous tube feedings are began at the prescribed rate. It is increased every ____ hours, usually by ____ mLs
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8-12 hours by 30-60 mL
Intermittent feedings should begin with ____ mL at a time. It should be increased in ____ mL increments over 4-6 feedings.
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150-250 mL; increased 50 mL
Bolus tube feedings should be infused over ____ minutes.
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20-30
Isometric tube feedings whether intermittent or continuous should be started at ____.
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Full strength (300-400 mOsm)
PICCs are started in a vein of the ____ and threaded into the ____.
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Forearm; subclavian or superior vena cava
Parenteral nutrition with greater than 10% dextrose requires ____ placed in an area like the superior vena cava.
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Central venous catheter (CVC)
Clients with short-term nutritional needs often receive IV solutions of ____ via a peripheral vein.
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less than 10% dextrose
You observe oil droplets and/or a creamy layer in a 3 in 1 admixture. You know this means?
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The emulsion has turned into large droplets that can result in fat emboli if administered.
What is a 3 in 1 admixture?
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PN solution with lipid emulsion infused over 24 hours
What is the difference between EN and PN therapy?
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EN= GI works and via tube; PN= GI doesn't work or client is in poop physiological state, IV feeding.
  
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