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Genitourinary SystemFundamentals of Nursing

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All urine specimens should be labeled with:
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Client's name, date and time of collection
____ precautions are mecessary during urine specimen handling.
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Standard
What are times urine specimens useful in measuring?
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Adrenocortical steriods/hormones, creatinine clearance, protein quantity
Which is more accurate: specific gravity or urine osmolality?
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Urine osmolality **# of particles in solution**
A specific gravity is useful in the determination of a client's ____ status.
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fluid balance
When should urine be collected for urinalysis and how soon should testing be done?
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Urine should come from the first void in the morning and should be processed within 2 hours
What is normal urine pH?
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4.6-8.0
What is the normal value of glucose in urine?
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0. less than 180 mg per 100 mL is okay.
What is the normal level of ketones in urine?
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0
What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
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1.0053-1.030
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What is the normal value of RBCs in urine?
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up to 2
Ketones in urine can indicate?
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Dehydration, starvation, excessive aspirin usage, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
What conditions can cause a high specific gravity?
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Dehydration, decreased renal blood flow, increased ADH (high specific gravity= concentrated)
What conditions cause decreased specific gravity?
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Overhydration, renal disease, inadequate ADH
If urine specimens can't be taken to the lab within 15-30 minutes, you should?
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Refrigerate it up to 2 hours
If a client is having an intravenous pyelogram or renal arteriogram, you should screen them for ____ to prevent problems.
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iodine/shellfish allergies
What are common responsibilities following a diagnostic study of the urinary tract?
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Assess i&O, observe urine characteristics, encourage fluids
What are two easy ways to prevent urinary system infections?
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Good perineal hygiene, fluid intake of 2000-2500 mL
Why does adding proteins like meat and eggs, or fruits like cranberries and prunes decrease urinary infections?
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They increase urine acidity which inhibits imcroorganisms
Incontinence that occurs when your pants aren't unzipped in time is called ____.
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Functional incontinence
Loss of urine with increased intraabdominal pressure; happens with coughing, sneezing, lifting?
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Stress incontinence
  
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