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Psychiatric BiologyPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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What is the function of the thalamus?
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It relays all sensory information except for smell from thalamus to the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Which part of the limbic system is involved in basic human activities like sleep-rest patterns, body temperature, and physical drives like hunger and sex?
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The hypothalamus
Which part of the brain is impacted when the patient has a lack of appetite or sleep problems?
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The hypothalamus
Where are neurohormones like oxytocin and ADH secreted from?
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The nerve cells of the hypothalamus
You observe a patient wearing a winter coat in the summer time and yet they don't appear hot. What structure in the brain is probably dysfunctional and therefore causing this phenomenon?
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The hypothalamus
Which part of the limbic system/brain is involved in the sense of smell?
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The amygdala
The ________ is a structure in the brain that provides an emotional component to memory and is involved in modulating aggression and sexuality.
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The amygdala
Which part of the brain appears to play a role in addiction?
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The limbic midbrain nuclei
Where do emotions like feeling satisfied by food, pleasure with nurturing children, and enjoyment of sexual activity originate within the brain?
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The limbic midbrain nuclei
Muscle tone, common reflexes and automatic voluntary motor functioning like walking are controlled by what CNS structure?
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The extrapyramidal motor system
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What symptoms would you expect to see in a patient with damage to their extrapyramidal motor system?
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Hypertonicity of muscle groups and/or involuntary motor movements (think Parkinson's).
What is thought to be the function of the pineal gland?
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Regulation of melatonin (dysregulation can lead to sleep and emotional disorders).
What are the functions of the locus ceruleus?
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Influences regulation of attention, time perception, sleep-rest cycles, arousal, learning, pain, and mood as well as information processing of new, novel experiences.
Which structure of the brain is thought to be involved in why individuals become addicted to substances and seek out risky behaviors despite being aware of negative consequences?
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The locus ceruleus
Which structure of the brain is important in the mediation of symptoms of emotional disorders due to its role of producing neurochemicals like serotonin?
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The brain stem
Which part of the brain controls movements and postural adjustments to regulate balance and positioning?
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The cerebellum
Which lobe of the brain is the last to fully develop?
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The frontal lobe, it finishes developing when a person is in their early 20's.
The ability of the brain to change its structure and function in various ways to compensate for changes in the neuronal environment or loss of function in a specific area is referred to as?
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Plasticity
When is the brain the most 'plastic?'
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In infancy and early childhood, allowing for large adaptive learning tasks to be more easily achieved.
____________ are small molecules that directly and indirectly control the opening or closing of ion channels.
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Neurotransmitters
__________ are chemical messengers that make a target cell membrane or postsynaptic membrane more or less susceptible to effects of a molecule.
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Neuromodulators
  
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