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Psychiatric BiologyPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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Question Answer
__________ are chemical messengers that make a target cell membrane or postsynaptic membrane more or less susceptible to effects of a molecule.
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Neuromodulators
What neurotransmitter is the primary cholinergic neurotransmitter?
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Ach-Acetylcholine
What role does acetylcholine have in Alzheimer's or Downs syndrome?
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Patients with Alzheimer's often have cholinergic neuron loss which reduces their sensitivity to acetylcholine. This causes decreased memory and impacts higher intellectual functioning.
What are biogenic amines synthesized from?
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Tyrosine, Tryptophan & Histidine
What are the biogenic amines?
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Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and histamine.
Which biogenic amines are synthesized from tyrosine?
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Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
What biogenic amine is synthesized from tryptophan?
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Serotonin
Which biogenic amines is synthesized from histidine?
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Histamine
How are dopamine levels altered in patients with Parkinson's?
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They have lower than normal levels
How are dopamine levels altered in patients with schizophrenia?
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They have higher than normal levels
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What is the role of dopamine in drug/substance addictions?
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Dopamine produces the feel good reward allowing for the reward of drug use and desire to continue using.
Which dopaminergic pathway? Projects into the cortex, has effects on judgment, reasoning, insight, social conscience, motivation, generalization of learning, and reward. Damage to this pathway has been associated with schizophrenia
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Mesocortical pathway
Which dopaminergic pathway? Projects into the temporal lobe, hippocampus and amygdala. Has effects on emotions, affects memory and auditory reception. Damage to this pathway has been associated with schizophrenia.
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Mesolimbic pathway
Which dopaminergic pathway? Projects into the substantia nigra and the basal ganglia. Impacts the extrapyramidal system (voluntary movement). Damage to this pathway has been associated with Parkinson's.
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Nigrostriatal pathway
Which dopaminergic pathway? Projects into the hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Impacts endocrine functions like metabolism, thirst, hunger, sexual function, circadian rhythms, digestion and temperature control.
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Tuberoinfundibular pathway
These pathways originate in the locus ceruleus and is thought to innervate the hypothalamus and impact endocrine function. They are also involved in sleep, wakefulness and reinforcement to facilitate learning.
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Noradrenergic Pathways
These pathways project into the hypothalamus and cerebellum. Plays a role in emotions, cognition, sensory perception, sleep and appetite. Also involved in food intake, hormone secretion, sexual behavior, thermoregulation, and cardiovascular regulation.
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Serotonergic Pathways
Decreases in this neurotransmitter have been linked to depression and insomnia.
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Serotonin
What condition has been linked to excesses of serotonin?
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Mania
What psychiatric conditions are thought to be linked to dysfunctions of serotonin pathways?
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OCD, panic disorders, and other anxiety disorders.
_________ are the building blocks of proteins and serves many roles in intraneuronal metabolism. Also functions as neurotransmitters (actually, the most prevalent neurotransmitters)
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Amino acids
  
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