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Psychiatric BiologyPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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_________ are the building blocks of proteins and serves many roles in intraneuronal metabolism. Also functions as neurotransmitters (actually, the most prevalent neurotransmitters)
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Amino acids
Which amino acids are excitatory?
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Glutamate
What is the role of the amino acid glutamate?
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It has a role in memory and learning enhancement.
What amino acids are inhibitory?
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GABA and glycine
What condition is associated with low levels of GABA?
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Seizure disorders
What condition is associated with high levels of GABA?
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Anxiety disorders
What is the major role of GABA?
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Serves as an inhibitory neurotransmitter which controls spinal and cerebellar reflexes.
What amino acid is associated with excitotoxicity and what conditions have been linked to this phenomenon?
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Glutamate: it is believed to be a component of alcohol withdrawal and part of the pathological process in conditions like ischemia, hypoxia, hypoglycemia and hepatic failure.
What psychiatric conditions are thought to be linked to dysfunctions of the glutamate system?
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Huntington's, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, ALS, AIDS-related dementia and schizophrenia.
__________ are amino acids that are produced by messenger RNA in the cell body and can serve as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones.
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Neuropeptides
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Which neuropeptides are responsible for pain suppression and are involved in endocrine functions?
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Opioid neuropeptides like endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins
Which neuropeptides are responsible for pain transmission and are involved in endocrine functions?
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Substance P and somatostatin
What are the receptor subtypes of Acetylcholine?
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Nicotinic and Muscarinic receptors
___________ involves the study and measure of time structures or biological rhythms.
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Chronobiology
________ rhythms are rhythms that have a 24-hour cycle.
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Circadian
_________ are specific events that function as time givers or synchronizers that set biologic rhythms.
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Zeitgebers
_________ is the most common example of an external zeitgeber.
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Light
The ___________ is an example of an internal zeitgeber.
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Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus
What disorders are linked to dysregulation in chronobiological cycles?
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Depression, seasonal affective disorder, fatigue, overeating, and hypersomnia.
_________ are diagnostic test findings that occur only in the presence of a specific psychiatric disorder and include lab or other diagnostic test results and neuropathologic changes noticeable in assessment.
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Biologic markers
What type of disorders are challenge tests most often used to assess?
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Panic disorders
  
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