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Mood DisordersPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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A pervasive and sustained emotion that color's one perception of the world and how one functions in it?.
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Mood
What are considered the primary mood disorders?
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Depressive and Manic Depressive disorders
What is a mood episode?
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They are considered the building blocks of a mood disorder diagnosis. It is an episode of major depression, mania, mania and depression together, or hypomania.
Who is most likely to experience major depressive disorders?
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Adolescent and adult women are more likely to experience major depressive orders than boys/men in the same group. Prepubertally, both are equally likely.
What is the neurobiological hypothesis for the cause of major depression?
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Deficiency or dysregulation in the CNS concentrations of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin or in their receptor functioning leads to depressive symptomatology.
What do psychoanalysts attribute depression to (Freud)?
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Lack of love, care, warmth, and/or protection early in life.
What do behavioral theorists attribute depression to?
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A severe reduction in rewarding activities or an increase in unpleasant events in one's life results in depression causing a continuous negative feedback, intensifying the depression.
What do cognitive theorists attribute depression to?
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Irrational beliefs and negative distortions of thought about the self, the environment, and the future engender and perpetuate depressive affects.
What do developmental theorists attribute depression to?
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Loss of a parent through death or separation or lack of emotionally adequate parenting.
What do social theorists attribute depression to?
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Maladaptive patterns in the family interactions or social factors like isolation, deprivation or financial deprivation.
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How is the severity of depression gauged?
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By the extent of physical changes in appetitie, sleep and energy level.
Why is a biological (physicall assessment) an important component of a diagnosing a psychiatric disorder?
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Many biological processes including dysfunctions in the CNS, endocrine system, anemia, pain, autoimmune illnesses, diabetes or menopause can manifest as psychiatric symptoms.
In addition to weight changes related to depression, what other physiological condition should elderly adults be assessed for?
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Dehydration-older adults with moderate to severe depression are more likely to be dehydrated.
Difficulty falling asleep is referred to as _________ insomnia.
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Initial insomnia
Waking up during the night and then being unable to return to sleep is referred to as _________ insomnia.
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Middle insomnia
Waking too early and being unable to return to sleep is referred to as __________ insomnia.
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Terminal insomnia
What is the term for prolonged sleep episodes at night or increased daytime sleep which doesn't result in a rested feeling?
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Hypersomnia
What is 'lethality' in reference to medications?
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The toxicity of the drug or potential to kill someone via overdose.
What follow-up question should a nurse ask once identifying a medication as a high lethality medication?
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How many pills are in the bottle and use of alcohol, marijuana, or other mood altering medications.
What are the risks associated with St. John's Wort taken with other mood altering medications?
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Combined drug-herb interactions can cause serotonin symdrome which is characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunctions and neuromuscular abnormalities.
What are the major goals in the biologic domain for treating depression?
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To establish normal sleep patterns, healthy nutrition, increase levels of activity and exercise.
  
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