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Substance Related DisordersPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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Question Answer
_________ syndrome is caused by thiamine deficiency characterized by oculomotor dysfunctions, ataxia and confusion.
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Wernicke's syndrome
__________ is the development of retrograde and anterograde amnesia with sparing of intelluctual function as a result of consuming alcohol for long periods of time.
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Korsakoff's psychosis
What is a key feature of Korsakoff's psychosis?
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Confabulation, telling a plausible but imagined scenario that fills in memory gaps.
What class of medications are commonly used to treat alcohol withdrawal?
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Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics
What benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed to treat alcohol withdrawal?
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Valium/diazepam or Librium/chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride
When do seizures typically develop once a patient has begun alcohol withdrawal?
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Within the first 48 hours
What drug is used as adjunct therapy to help deter patients from drinking?
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Antabuse/Disulfiram
What are some adverse effects that can occur from drinking alcohol while on Antabuse/Disulfiram?
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Respiratory depression, cardiovascular collapse, arrhythmias, MI, CHF, unsconsciousness, convulsions and death
What role does Trexan/Naltrexone have in treating alcohol dependence?
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It can reduce alcohol craving, maintain abstinence, and interfere with the tendency to want to drink more if a recovering patient slips and has a drink.
What are common vitamin deficiencies experienced by alcoholics?
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Thiamine (B1), folic acid, magnesium
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What is commonly given to alcoholic patients with a history of experiencing withdrawal seizures?
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Magnesium sulfate to treat a magnesium deficiency
What are the major symptoms of cocaine withdrawal?
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Severe anxiety, along with restlessness and agitation. Later it causes an intense depression, craving and drug seeking behaviors that may last for weeks.
What neurotransmitter is most affected by cocaine use?
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Dopamine, it is increased causing euphoria and in some cases psychotic symptoms. It also increases norepinephrine and serotonin to lesser extents
What is typically the ultimate cause of death from cocaine overdose?
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Respiratory failure
_________ can occur from cocaine use and is accompanied by tachycardia, hypertension, cardiac arrythmias, sweating, hyperpyrexia and convulsions.
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Toxic psychosis
What is the most common two drug combination that results in death?
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Alcohol and cocaine
Why are patients excessively sleepy when undergoing cocaine withdrawal (sleeping at times 12-18 hours)?
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The norepinephrine depletion caused by cessation of the cocaine
What should nursing interventions focus on when aiding a patient undergoing cocaine withdrawal?
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Help the patient solve problems related to managing the cocaine cravings
What conditions are amphetamines legally used to treat?
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Narcolepsy, ADD, depression and obesity
What drug classes are used to treat amphetamine withdrawal?
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Antidepressants and dopaminergic agonists
What causes the euphoria experienced by meth users?
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The excessive release of dopamine
  
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