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Stress and Mental HealthPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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Which mental health model explains mental illness as the result of an individual having a predisposition towards a mental illness which is challenged by a stressor (psychological or biological)?
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The diathesis-stress model
What does diathesis mean?
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A genetic predisposition towards a mental health disorder.
What was Walter Cannon's theory of stress?
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An acute stress response activates the SNS causing a release of epinephrine and noradrenaline, perpeutating a fight or flight response.
What was Hans Selye's theory of stress?
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Seyle believed a chronic challenge (sustained stressors) released cortisol. The body attempts to maintain homeostatis by adjusting physiological processes in response. Stress causes a sustained release of cortisol.
What is allostasis?
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The body's ability to adapt or change to achieve stability. It involves the ANS, HPA axis and the cardiovascular, autonomic, and immune systems.
What is stress?
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Stress is a product of a relationship between the person and environment. It is appraised as the end result of something that exceeds the person?s resources and endangers the person?s well-being. It is associated with development and exacerbation of the symptoms of MI.
In the biopsychosocial model of stress, what are antecedents?
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Factors internally and externally that impact coping and adaptation to stress. Includes beliefs, values, commitment and personality (internal) and social networks, social support, demands/constraints, and life events (external)
In the biopsychosocial model of stress, what is an appraisal?
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An internal assessment of a stressor
What is a primary appraisal?
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A person evaluates the events occurring in his or her life as a threat, harm or challenge.
What is a secondary appraisal?
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The person explains the outcome of the event being evaluated.
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What are two important antecedents to a stress response?
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The person-environment relationship and the person's cognitive appraisal of the risks and benefits of the situation.
What is the purpose of an appraisal to a stressful situation?
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It determines the manifestations of stress and the potential for coping.
Who created the biopsychosocial model of stress?
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Lazarus and Folkman
What is a person-environment relationship?
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The interaction between the individual and the environment that changes throughout a stress experience.
How do values and commitment impact a health outcome?
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If a person values an outcome, they are more likely to be committed to the activities directed towards that outcome. The commitment is a factor in the stress response.
Who developed personality theories r/t health outcomes?
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Meyer Friedman and Roy Roseman
How are people with Type A personalities impacted psychologically and physically?
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They are often experiencing increased psychological arousal and are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease.
How are people with Type B personalities impacted psychologically and physically?
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They are generally relaxed, easy-going and easily satisfied and typically handle stress well. They are less likely to develop cardiovascular problems.
How are people with Type C (conforming, compliant, avoid conflict) personalities impacted psychologically and physically?
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They are prone to depression and hopelessness and may be prone to developing cancer.
How are people with Type D (distressed) personalities impacted psychologically and physically?
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They are more likely to experience Myocardial Infarctions and are prone to negative emotions, pessimism, depression and don't share feelings.
  
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