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SchizophreniaPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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____________ is the belief that neutral stimuli have special meaning to the individual, such as the television commentator speaking directly to the individual.
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Referential thinking
____________ is the term to describe thinking that is restricted to the literal and immediate so that the individual has private rules of logic and reasoning that make no sense to anyone else.
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Autistic thinking
__________ is the term for a lack of abstraction in thinking, an inability to understand punch lines, metaphors, and analogies.
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Concrete thinking
________ is the purposeless repetition of words or phrases.
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Verbigeration
____________ is the use of words interchangeably with similar meanings.
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Metonymic speech
__________ is the repetition of words or phrases that are similar in sound but in no other way, for example light, right, might, sight?.
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Clang association
What is the difference between hallucinations and illusions?
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Hallucinations are usually an internal, subjective experience?no one else is exposed to the stimuli that triggered it. Illusions are usually triggered by an external stimulus, like a TV in the room which although off, talks to the person.
_________ occur when a person misperceives or exaggerates stimuli that is in their environment.
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Illusions
What are examples of how disorganized thinking is manifested in patients with schizophrenia?
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By the presence of echolalia, circumstantiality, loose associations, tangentiality, flight of ideas, word salad, neologisms, paranoia, referential thinking, autistic thinking, concrete thinking, verbigeration, metonymic speech, clang associations, stilted language and/or pressured speech.
__________ is a disorganized behavior characterized by hyperactive purposeless motor activity and abnormal movements such as grimacing and posturing.
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Catatonic excitement
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________ is a disorganized behavior characterized by the involuntary imitation of another person's movements and gestures.
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Echopraxia
_________ is a form of disorganized behavior characterized by repetitive, purposeless movements that are idiosyncratic to the individual and to some degree outside the individual's control.
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Stereotypy
________ is a disorganized behavior characterized by a posture that is helped in odd or unusual fixed positions for an extended period of time.
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Waxy flexibility
What childhood factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia?
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Development delays, problems with social adjustment, poor academic or cognitive performance.
When does late onset schizophrenia typically occur and what gender is most affected?
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Onset is usually after age 45 and more women than men are affected
How is late onset schizophrenia different in its presentation from schizophrenia with an earlier onset?
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It is more likely to present with positive symptoms, particularly persecutory or paranoid delusions and the person is more likely to have sensory disturbances like hearing or vision losses.
What are considered risk factors for the development of schizophrenia?
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Stresses in the perinatal period (like starvation, poor nutrition, infections), obstetrical complications, genetic/familial susceptibility, age of parents, birth in an urban setting, severe instability of early childhood environment and early developmental difficulties.
Men ten to be diagnosed with schizophrenia between the ages of _______, women are typically diagnosed between the ages of ________.
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Men: ages 18-25, Women: ages 25-35
What comorbid medical conditions are prevalent among people with schizophrenia?
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DM II, vision & dental problems, HTN and STDs.
What F&E imbalance is associated with schizophrenia, particularly early onset schizophrenia?
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Disordered water balance, usually in the form of water intoxication and its resultant hyponatremia.
What complications can develop in schizophrenic patients with chronic hyponatremia?
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Renal dysfunction, urinary incontinence, cardiac failure, malnutrition, or permanent brain damage.
  
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