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SchizophreniaPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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What complications can develop in schizophrenic patients with chronic hyponatremia?
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Renal dysfunction, urinary incontinence, cardiac failure, malnutrition, or permanent brain damage.
What are signs and symptoms a patient is experiencing acute hyponatremia?
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Confusion, muscle twitching, decreased serum and urine osmolality and urine specific gravity, weakness, seizures, increased urinary volume and coma.
What are signs and symptoms a patient is experiencing chronic hyponatremia?
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Generalized weakness, giddiness, headache, muscle cramps, irritability, loss of appetite, nausea, restlessness and slight confusion.
What is hyposthenuria?
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A condition characterized by a urine specific gravity below 1.008, typically from water intoxication.
What happens to the globus pallidus in patients with schizophrenia?
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Early in the disease, blood flow to the left side of the globus pallidus is decreased.
What happens to the frontal lobes of the brain in patients with schizophrenia?
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During normal functions of the frontal lobe, like working memory tasks, there is less blood flow.
What happens to the temporal lobe of the brain in patients with schizophrenia?
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The cortex becomes thinner
What happens to the hippocampus in the brain of a patient with schizophrenia?
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The anterior portion becomes smaller
What happens to the lateral and third ventricles of the brain of a patient with schizophrenia?
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They enlarge and the sulci widen
What are three neurodevelopmental changes that occur during puberty that may be implicated in the development of schizophrenia?
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Changes in the neurotransmitter system pathways and substrates occur, synaptic pruning and brain growth, and changes in the steroid-hormonal environment occurs.
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What does the dopamine hypothesis posit is the cause of schizophrenia?
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Hyperdopaminergic action in the brain is the cause for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly in the left side of the brain; especially the left temporal lobe and globus pallidus.
What is hypofrontality?
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Reduced cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of the brain along with hyperactivity of the limbic area?a condition seen with schizophrenia.
What causes the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
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Dopamine hyperactivity in the mesolimbic tract, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and memory.
What is thought to cause the dopamine hyperactivity of the mesolimbic tract in the brains of people with schizophrenia?
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An overactive modulation of neurotransmission from the nucleus accumbens or hypoactivity of the mesocortical tacts, preventing normal inhibition of the mesolimbic tract.
What causes the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia?
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Hypoactivity of the mesocortical dopaminergic tract, a part of the brain associated with motivation, planning, sequencing, attention and social behaviors.
What is believed to be the site of the extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotic drugs and the site of motor symptoms (like stereotypical behavior) associated with schizophrenia?
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Nigrostriatal dopaminergic tract
What does the social theory of expressed emotion hypothesize?
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Certain family communication patterns increase the symptomatology and incidence of relapse in patients with schizophrenia.
What characteristics make up a high EE family in the theory of expressed emotion? What impact does a high EE family have?
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Critical, hostile, and negative about the patient, and emotionally overinvolved in the patient, shown by self-sacrificing and being overprotective. These characteristics lead to increased symptoms and incidence of relapse.
What characteristics make up a low EE family in the theory of expressed emotion? What impact does a low EE family have?
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Few negative comments, not overinvolved in the patient. Less relapse and symptomatology than schizophrenics with high EE families.
What should always been done for a patient experiencing their first psychotic episode from schizophrenia?
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A suicide assessment
What is the priority of care for a patient during acute times of illness from schizophrenia?
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Treatment with antipsychotic medications.
  
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