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Antipsychotics and AnxiolyticsPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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How long does it typically take to reach the full therapeutic effect of antipsychotics?
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3-6 weeks
Which antipsychotic medications can be given in long-acting preparations, allowing for dosing via injectin every 2-4 weeks?
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fluphenazine/Prolixin & haloperidol/Haldol
What herb is known to interact negatively with antipsychotic medications, increasing the risk of dystonic reactions?
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Kava kava
Which antipsychotic medication is administered in much lower doses than the others due to its potency?
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Haloperidol/Haldol
What are some special considerations with respect to injection of Haldol and Prolixin?
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Use a dry, large-gauge needle (at least 21 gauge) because it is very viscous. Use the Z-track method in a deep muscle and don?t rub or massage the area afterward. Injection sites should be rotated. The solution should remain in a plastic syringe no longer than 15 minutes.
What are the common side effects of typical antipsychotic agents?
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Drowsiness, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, increased heart rate, urinary retention and constipations.
What are some common adverse effects of typical antipsychotics?
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EPS (usually with 5-30 days), blood dyscrasias, lowering of the seizure threshold.
What are the four atypical antipsychotic medications?
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Clozapine/Clozaril, risperidone/Risperdal, olanzapine/Zyprexa and quetiapine/Seroquel.
What is the most common side effect of atypical antipsychotics?
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Weight gain
Which atypical antipsychotic is associated with agranulocytosis, requiring frequent WBC monitoring?
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Clozapine/Clozaril
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What are the most common SE of atypical antipsychotics?
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Dizziness, sedation, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotenstion, and constipation.
Which atypical antispychotics are known to prolong the QT interval, causing the potential for dysrhythmias?
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Geodon/ziprasidone
What adverse affect is common with atypical antipsychotics?
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Hyperglycemia/the development of DM II
What are special considerations for liquid preparations of antipsychotics?
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Protect it from light, mix with juice, avoid contact with skin because it can cause contact dermatitis.
What is the underlying action of benzodiazepines?
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They enhance the action of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter
What is the difference between primary and secondary anxiety?
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Primary anxiety isn't caused by drugs, alcohol or an underlying medical condition and therefore isn?t commonly treated with anxiolytics.
Why is long term use of anxiolytics discouraged?
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Tolerance can develop within weeks or months
_________ is an anxiolytic that has an interaction with grapefruit juice that leads to possible toxicity.
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Buspirone/BuSpar
What is the common recommendation for the length of time that benzodiazepines should be prescribed for?
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No more than 3-4 weeks
What are the common side effects of benzodiazepines?
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Sedation, dizziness, headaches, dry mouth, blurred vision, rare urinary incontinence and constipation.
What adverse effect is a concern with benzodiazepines?
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Leukopenia, monitor for fever, malaise, sore throat, etc.
  
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