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Delirium and DementiasPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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Question Answer
___________ is based on a system of interrelated abilities, such as perception, reasoning, judgment, intuition, and memory that allows one to be aware of oneself and one's surroundings.
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Cognition
What structure of the brain is essential to the transfer of some memories from short-term to long term storage?
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The hippocampus
_________ is a facet of cognition concerned with retaining and recalling past experiences.
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Memory
Impairments in _________ abilities can resilt in a failure of the afflicted person to recognize that he/she is ill and needs treatment.
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Cognitive
The underlying major difference between delirium and dementia is?.
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Delirium has an acute onset and dementia has an insidious onset.
________ dementia results from disease processes that globally affects the cortex like Alzheimers.
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Cortical dementia
Alzheimers is an example of _________ dementia.
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Cortical dementia
__________ dementia is caused by dysfunction or deterioration of deep gray or white matter structures inside the brain and brain stem.
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Subcortical
How can symptoms of subcortical dementia differ from cortical dementia?
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They can be more localized and tend to disrupt arousal, attention and motivation.
What is the key diagnostic criterion of delirium?
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Imparied consciousness: the patient is less aware of their environment, loses the ability to focus, sustain and shift attention and experiences problems in memory, orientation and language.
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What is the priority for a patient experiencing delirium?
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Identifying and correcting the underlying cause.
What are common causes of delirium in children?
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Anticholinergic medications or fever
How does delirium manifest in children?
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Sleep-wake disturbances, fluctuating symptoms, impaired attention, irritability, agitation, mood lability and confusion.
What are the major differences between delirium and dementia?
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In dementia, the patient usually has a clear consciousness, can sustain attention, normal psychomotor activity and speech. In delirium, all those things are impaired.
Who is most likely to experience delirium?
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Post-operative elderly patients.
What is the greatest risk factor for developing delirium?
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Pre-existing cognitive impairment
What are risk factors for developing delirium?
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Severe illness, age, being male, alcohol abuse, lower levels of education attainment, fracture, depression or impaired vision.
What is the biological basis for most cases of delirium?
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An imbalance of key neurochemicals such as dopamine, serotonin, cortisol, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA.
What are the two primary aspects of managing delirium?
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Elimination or correction of the underlying cause and symptomatic and supportive measures
When determining the cause of delirium, what are some nursing interventions that should be done?
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Use of all suspected medications should be stopped and vital signs should be monitored every 2 hours at a minimum. Observe for changes in vital signs, behavior and mental status.
  
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