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Delirium and DementiasPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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What is the priority diagnosis for a patient with delirium?
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Risk for injury
What is the usefulness of staging Alzheimers Dementia (AD)?
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It can help determine a patient's current cognitive status and provides a sound basis for clinical decisions in management of the disease.
How is the diagnosis of AD confirmed?
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By the presence of abnormal degenerative structures, neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at autopsy.
Alterations in language capability is referred to as ________.
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Aphasia
Impaired ability to execute motor activities despite intact motor function is called?.
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Apraxia
_________ is the failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function.
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Agnosia
A disturbance in executive functioning means a patient is experiencing problems doing what?
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Think abstractly, plan, initiate, sequence, monitor and stop complex behavior.
What are the diagnostic characteristics of AD?
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Memory impairment along with aphasia, agnosia, apraxia, or disturbances in executive function that are sufficiently severe to impair occupational or social functioning and represents a decline from previous functioning.
When memory problems occur but aren't sufficient enough in severity to be diagnosed as AD, they are usually diagnosed as _______.
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Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
How is Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI-A) different from Multiple Cognitive Domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI-MCD)?
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MCI-A is caused by hippocampal atrophy and results in amnesia. MCI-MCD is caused by cortical atrophy and results in memory problems and mild errors in judgment or language
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T/F Prior head injury that lead to unconsciousness is considered a risk factor for AD.
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TRUE
What are beta-amyloid plaques?
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Insoluble deposits of protein and cellular material outside and around neurons that destroy cholinergic neurons, resulting in cognitive impairments seen with AD.
What are oligomeres?
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Fragments of clumped together beta-amyloid peptides. As they become more insoluble, they become beta-amyloid plaques.
Where are neuritic plaque densities the highest in patients with AD?
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The temporal and occipital lobes of the brain. There are intermediate amounts in the parietal lobe and neglible amounts in the frontal and limbic cortex.
What symptoms of AD are attributable to beta-amyloid plaque formation?
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Aphasia and visuospatial abnormalities
__________ are abnormally twisted protein threads found in the cell comprised of a protein called tau.
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Neurofibrillary tangles
Where are neurofibrillary tangles typically found in the brains of a patient with AD?
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Initially in the limbic area, but then progresses to the cortex.
What symptoms of AD are attributable to neurofibrillary tangle formation?
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Memory disturbance and psychiatric symptoms
How does the disruption of acethycholine (ACh) functions impact a patient with AD?
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It results in memory losses
What causes the deficiences of norepinephrine associated with AD?
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Loss of cells in the locus ceruleus
What causes the deficiences of serotonin associated with AD?
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Loss of neurons in the raphi nuclei
  
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